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basilique rome fonction

by , 26 décembre 2020

It is a long rectangle two storeys high, with ranks of arch-headed windows one above the other, without aisles (there was no mercantile exchange in this imperial basilica) and, at the far end beyond a huge arch, the apse in which Constantine held state. In Europe and the Americas the basilica remained the most common architectural style for churches of all Christian denominations, though this building plan has become less dominant in new buildings since the late 20th century. Dans la Rome antique, la basilique suit la même évolution que la stoa grecque et, initialement prévue comme espace public à l'abri des intempéries, elle finit par se spécialiser dans certaines activités, essentiellement judiciaires, toutes les basiliques romaines servant pour l'administration de la justice [1]. 'courtyard') and the atria and triclinia of élite Roman dwellings. Preface par Émile Mâle. > Basilique de Saint Pierre de Rome - Image de Ωméga * @ Flick ; Il raconte: « La restauration de la grande coupole de la basilique Saint-Pierre, en particulier le tambour, a commencé le 2 septembre 2019 avec le montage de l'échafaudage. The building gave its name to the architectural form of the basilica. (collection de l'école française de rome 283). [24] This basilica, begun in 313, was the first imperial Christian basilica. [24] Within was a rectangular assembly hall with frescoes and at the east end an ambo, a cathedra, and an altar. [48][23] The Justinianic basilica replaced an earlier, smaller structure which Egeria had planned to visit in the 4th century, and remains of a 2,130 foot (650 m) aqueduct branch built to supply the complex with water probably dates from Justinian's reign. They now tended to dominate their cities from opulent palaces and country villas, set a little apart from traditional centers of public life. [39] The Council of Chalcedon (8–31 October 451) was held in the basilica, which must have been large enough to accommodate the more than two hundred bishops that attneded its third session, together with their translators and servants; around 350 bishops attended the Council in all. 'royal stoa'. [65] Qasr Serīj's construction may have been part of the policy of toleration that Khosrow and his successors had for Miaphysitism – a contrast with Justinian's persecution of heterodoxy within the Roman empire. [51] Typically, these crypts were accessed from the apse's interior, though not always, as at the 6th century Church of St John at the Hebdomon, where access was from outside the apse. [58] Crete was throughout Late Antiquity a province of the Diocese of Macedonia, governed from Thessaloniki. [31][32] Earlier basilicas had mostly had wooden roofs, but this basilica dispensed with timber trusses and used instead cross-vaults made from Roman bricks and concrete to create one of the ancient world's largest covered spaces: 80 m long, 25 m wide, and 35 m high. [15][3] Trajan's Forum (Latin: forum Traiani) was separated from the Temple of Trajan, the Ulpian Library, and his famous Column depicting the Dacian Wars by the Basilica. [64], The Miaphysite convert from the Church of the East, Ahudemmeh constructed a new basilica c.565 dedicated to Saint Sergius at ʿAin Qenoye (or ʿAin Qena according to Bar Hebraeus) after being ordained bishop of Beth Arbaye by Jacob Baradaeus and while proselytizing among the Bedouin of Arbayistan in the Sasanian Empire. Contrairement aux basiliques médiévales et modernes, les basiliques antiques n'ont pas de fonctions religieuses. As early as the time of Augustus, a public basilica for transacting business had been part of any settlement that considered itself a city, used in the same way as the covered market houses of late medieval northern Europe, where the meeting room, for lack of urban space, was set above the arcades, however. Some basilicas in the Caucasus, particularly those of Armenia and Georgia, have a central nave only slightly higher than the two aisles and a single pitched roof covering all three. Espaces architecturaux, bâtiments et ensembles, Portail de l’architecture et de l’urbanisme, https://fr.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Basilique_civile&oldid=176328604, Portail:Architecture et urbanisme/Articles liés, licence Creative Commons attribution, partage dans les mêmes conditions, comment citer les auteurs et mentionner la licence. Welche Rolle die Basilika in diesem Zusammenhang spielte, ist ebenso ungeklärt wie die Frage, welche Funktion ihr zukam. This forecourt was entered from outside through a range of buildings along the public street. [60] The Central Basilica replaced a synagogue on a site razed in the late 5th century, and there was also a North Basilica and further basilicas without the walls. For the designation "basilica" in canon law, see, The title of minor basilicas was first attributed to the church of, Architecture of cathedrals and great churches, "The Institute for Sacred Architecture – Articles – The Eschatological Dimension of Church Architecture", "New Testament Archaeology Beyond the Gospels", "The Remains of London's Roman Basilica and Forum", "Opus reticulatum panels in the Severan Basilica at Lepcis Magna", "Baptisteries in Ancient Sites and Rites", "The Archaeology of Early Christianity: The History, Methods, and State of a Field", "Hydraulic capacity of ancient water conveyance systems to Ephesus", Heritage Foundation of Newfoundland and Labrador, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Basilica&oldid=993485440, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, All Wikipedia articles needing clarification, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from June 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2020, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2019, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles incorporating a citation from the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia with Wikisource reference, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Basilica Porcia: first basilica built in Rome (184 BC), erected on the personal initiative and financing of the censor Marcus Porcius Cato (Cato the Elder) as an official building for the, This page was last edited on 10 December 2020, at 21:26. The usable model at hand, when Constantine wanted to memorialise his imperial piety, was the familiar conventional architecture of the basilicas.[68]. Design and construction. basilique Saint Jean de Latran n. Basilica of Saint John Lateran. [3] In the Republic two types of basilica were built across Italy in the mid-2nd to early 1st centuries BC: either they were nearly square as at Fanum Fortunae, designed by Vitruvius, and Cosa, with a 3:4 width-length ratio; or else they were more rectangular, as Pompeii's basilica, whose ratio is 3:7. Les Anciennes Basiliques et églises de Rome au XVe siècle book. Chaque ville romaine développée possède une basilique, souvent située à proximité immédiate du forum. La basilique Saint-Pierre de Rome est l'oeuvre majeure du XVIème siècle. There were several variations of the basic plan of the secular basilica, always some kind of rectangular hall, but the one usually followed for churches had a central nave with one aisle at each side and an apse at one end opposite to the main door at the other end. [55] At Nicopolis in Epirus, founded by Augustus to commemorate his victory at the Battle of Actium at the end of the Last war of the Roman Republic, four early Christian basilicas were built during Late Antiquity whose remains survive to the present. [36] According to Augustine of Hippo, the dispute resulted in Ambrose organising an 'orthodox' sit-in at the basilica and arranged the miraculous invention and translation of martyrs, whose hidden remains had been revealed in a vision. The first known basilica—the Basilica Porcia in the Roman Forum—was constructed in 184 BC by Marcus Porcius Cato (the Elder). Floor plan of the Justinianic Basilica of St John, Ephesus, after 535/6. Basilicas are typically rectangular buildings with a central nave flanked by two or more longitudinal aisles, with the roof at two levels, being higher in the centre over the nave to admit a clerestory and lower over the side-aisles. Rededicated 561 to St Apollinaris. [13] Londinium's basilica, more than 500 feet (150 m) long, was the largest north of the Alps and a similar length to the modern St Paul's Cathedral. Chef d'oeuvre de la Renaissance et du Baroque, elle représente le renouveau de la Ville Eternelle. [3] To improve the quality of the Roman concrete used in the Basilica Ulpia, volcanic scoria from the Bay of Naples and Mount Vesuvius were imported which, though heavier, was stronger than the pumice available closer to Rome. [26] Hagia Sophia, originally founded by Constantine, was at the social and political heart of Constantinople, near to the Great Palace, the Baths of Zeuxippus, and the Hippodrome of Constantinople, while the headquarters of the Ecumenical Patriarchate was within the basilica's immediate vicinity. Rome est donc une République oligarchique; autrement dit, c'est un régime politique où les pouvoirs sont répartis entre les gens les plus influents et les plus riches. [12] The smallest known basilica in Britain was built by the Silures at Caerwent and measured 180 by 100 feet (55 m × 30 m). Architectural formulas for temples were unsuitable due to their pagan associations, and because pagan cult ceremonies and sacrifices occurred outdoors under the open sky in the sight of the gods, with the temple, housing the cult figures and the treasury, as a backdrop. [9], According to the Liber Pontificalis, Constantine was also responsible for the rich interior decoration of the Lateran Baptistery constructed under Pope Sylvester I (r. 314–335), sited about 50 metres (160 ft). [23] The Great Basilica in Antioch of Pisidia is a rare securely dated 4th century Christian basilica and was the city's cathedral church. La lutte des plébéiens pour l'égalité "Nous sommes citoyens, comme les patriciens. [26], Around 310, while still a self-proclaimed augustus unrecognised at Rome, Constantine began the construction of the Basilica Constantiniana or Aula Palatina, 'palatine hall', as a reception hall for his imperial seat at Trier (Augusta Treverorum), capital of Belgica Prima. [52] This monastery was the administrative centre of the Pachomian order where the monks would gather twice annually and whose library may have produced many surviving manuscripts of biblical, Gnostic, and other texts in Greek and Coptic. Finden Sie perfekte Stock-Fotos zum Thema S Basilica sowie redaktionelle Newsbilder von Getty Images. Good early examples of the architectural basilica include the Church of the Nativity at Bethlehem (6th century), the church of St Elias at Thessalonica (5th century), and the two great basilicas at Ravenna. [50] The church was a domed cruciform basilica begun in 535/6; enormous and lavishly decorated, it was built in the same style as Justinian's Church of the Holy Apostles in Constantinople. Seated in the tribune of his basilica, the great man would meet his dependent clientes early every morning. [63] Some column capitals were of marble from Greece identical to those in Basilica of San Vitale and must have been imported from the Byzantine centre along with the columns and some of the opus sectile. [33] The nave would be kept clear for liturgical processions by the clergy, with the laity in the galleries and aisles to either side. À Rome, les tribuns de la plèbe tiennent leurs audiences dans la basilique Porcia et le tribunal des … EMBED (for wordpress.com hosted blogs and archive.org item tags) Want more? [24] Christians also continued to hold services in synagogues, houses, and gardens, and continued practising baptism in rivers, ponds, and Roman bathhouses. Stepped hall: The vaults of the central nave begin a bit higher than those of the lateral aisles, but there is no additional storey. In the post Nicene period, basilicas became a standard model for Christian spaces for congregational worship throughout the Mediterranean and Europe. Aisleless church with wallside pilasters, a barrel-vault and upper windows above lateral chapels. [24] The versatility of the basilica form and its variability in size and ornament recommended itself to the early Christian Church: basilicas could be grandiose as the Basilica of Maxentius in the Forum Romanum or more practical like the so-called Basilica of Bahira in Bosra, while the Basilica Constantiniana on the Lateran Hill was of intermediate scale. Palma Cathedral on Mallorca in Spain has windows on three levels, one above the aisles, one above the file of chapels and one in the chapels. [24] Outside the basilica was the Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius, a rare example of an Antique statue that has never been underground. J.-C. s'inspire de la stoa grecque (ἡ στοά), un portique fermé à l'arrière par un mur plein et ouvert en façade par une colonnade. [35] (Constantine had disbanded the Praetorian guard after his defeat of their emperor Maxentius and replaced them with another bodyguard, the Scholae Palatinae. Hall church: All vaults are almost on the same level. Le mot continue de désigner des édifices religieux d'une importance particulière, sans pour autant remplir les fonctions d'une cathédrale, qui bénéficient de privilèges particuliers[13]. On Crete, the Roman cities suffered from repeated earthquakes in the 4th century, but between c. 450 and c. 550, a large number of Christian basilicas were constructed. La Basilique - Droit canonique, pastorale et politique, de l'Antiquité au XXIe siècle (Cerf-Patrimoine) | Ouattara, Michel | ISBN: 9782204138901 | Kostenloser Versand für … Si nous n'avons pas les mêmes richesses, nous avons la même patrie qu'eux. [6] Basilicas were the administrative and commercial centres of major Roman settlements: the "quintessential architectural expression of Roman administration". La hauteur de la nef centrale excède celle des nefs latérales permettant l'ouverture de fenêtres dans la partie supérieure des murs latéraux pour illuminer l'espace intérieur. An apse at one end, or less frequently at both ends or on the side, usually contained the raised tribunal occupied by the Roman magistrates. A peculiar type of basilica, known as three-church basilica, was developed in early medieval Georgia, characterised by the central nave which is completely separated from the aisles with solid walls.[70]. [27] At Dion near Mount Olympus in Macedonia, now an Archaeological Park, the latter 5th century Cemetery Basilica, a small church, was replete with potsherds from all over the Mediterranean, evidencing extensive economic activity took place there. [64] The basilicas were associated with cemeteries with Christian inscriptions and burials. [60] Various mosaics and sculptural decorations have been found there, and while the city suffered from the Ostrogoths in 479 and an earthquake in 518, ceasing to be a major city thereafter, it remained a bishopric until the end of the 7th century and the Basilica of Philip had its templon restored in the 8th century.[60]. Une basilique civile, ou simplement basilique (en latin : basilica), désigne durant l'Antiquité un grand édifice public destiné à abriter des activités commerciales, financières et judiciaires. This was the architectural ground-plan of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome, until in the 15th century it was demolished to make way for a modern church built to a new plan. Le texte du Vœu placé dans la Basilique est le suivant : « En présence des malheurs qui désolent la France et des malheurs plus grands peut-être qui la menacent encore. [24] Similarly, at Santi Giovanni e Paolo al Celio, an entire ancient city block – a 2nd-century insula on the Caelian Hill – was buried beneath a 4th-century basilica. [6] At Volubilis, principal city of Mauretania Tingitana, a basilica modelled on Leptis Magna's was completed during the short reign of Macrinus. [59], Stobi, (Ancient Greek: Στόβοι, romanized: Stóboi) the capital from the late 4th century of the province of Macedonia II Salutaris, had numerous basilicas and six palaces in late antiquity. Originally, a basilica was an ancient Roman public building, where courts were held, as well as serving other official and public functions. Finally visit the Basilica of St John Lateran, cathedral of the Bishop of Rome. Basilicas of this type were built in western Europe, Greece, Syria, Egypt, and Palestine, that is, at any early centre of Christianity. [3] They were simpler and smaller than were civic basilicas, and can be identified by inscriptions or their position in the archaeological context. Ostrogothic Basilica of Christ the Redeemer, Ravenna, 504. Semi-circular interior, polygonal exterior. Certaines stoae ont acquis une spécialisation fonctionnelle avec le temps, comme la stoa basileios d'Athènes qui devient le siège de l'archonte roi. [3], Long, rectangular basilicas with internal peristyle became a quintessential element of Roman urbanism, often forming the architectural background to the city forum and used for diverse purposes. The episcopal see was the three-aisled Basilica A, the Church of St Demetrius of Thessaloniki, and similar to the Church of the Acheiropoietos in Thessaloniki. [52] In North Africa, late antique basilicas were often built on a doubled plan. Inspiration may have come from prototypes like Athens's Stoa Basileios or the hypostyle hall on Delos, but the architectural form is most derived from the audience halls in the royal palaces of the Diadochi kingdoms of the Hellenistic period. It continues to be used in an architectural sense to describe rectangular buildings with a central nave and aisles, and usually a raised platform at the opposite end from the door. A noter qu'elle n'est pas la cathédrale de Rome puisque c'est Saint Jean de Latran qui assure cette fonction. [65] According to Ahudemmeh's biographer this basilica and its martyrium, in the upper Tigris valley, was supposed to be a copy of the Basilica of St Sergius at Sergiopolis (Resafa), in the middle Euphrates, so that the Arabs would not have to travel so far on pilgrimage. Apse of the ruined Great Basilica, Antioch in Pisidia. [6] In the imperial period, statues of the emperors with inscribed dedications were often installed near the basilicas' tribunals, as Vitruvius recommended. Le gouvernement romain est divisé en trois éléments que sont le Sénat , les magistrats et les assemblées, élus pour un an , … Because the cult of the cross was spreading at about the same time, this comparison met with stunning success. [16] Also known as the Basilica Constantiniana, 'Basilica of Constantine' or Basilica Nova, 'New Basilica', it chanced to be the last civic basilica built in Rome. [36] At Easter in 386 the Arian party, preferred by the Theodosian dynasty, sought to wrest the use of the basilica from the Nicene partisan Ambrose. In the 3rd century of the Christian era, the governing elite appeared less frequently in the forums. A rare American church built imitating the architecture of an Early Christian basilica, St. Mary's (German) Church in Pennsylvania, now demolished. [63] There are conch mosaics in the basilica's three apses and the fine opus sectile on the central apse wall is "exceptionally well preserved". sainte-marie-majeure. La dernière modification de cette page a été faite le 7 novembre 2020 à 11:23. [26] This basilica, which "continues to stand as one of the most visually imposing and architecturally daring churches in the Mediterranean", was the cathedral of Constantinople and the patriarchal church of the Patriarch of Constantinople. [58], Nine basilica churches were built at Nea Anchialos, ancient Phthiotic Thebes (Ancient Greek: Θη̑βαι Φθιώτιδες, romanized: Τhḗbai Phthiṓtides), which was in its heyday the primary port of Thessaly. Rather than retreats from public life, however, these residences were the forum made private. In the 4th century, once the Imperial authorities had decriminalised Christianity with the 313 Edict of Milan, and with the activities of Constantine the Great and his mother Helena, Christians were prepared to build larger and more handsome edifices for worship than the furtive meeting-places (such as the Cenacle, cave-churches, house churches such as that of the martyrs John and Paul) they had been using. [28] An old theory by Ejnar Dyggve that these were the architectural intermediary between the Christian martyrium and the classical heröon is no longer credited. Amphorae discovered at basilicas attest their economic uses and can reveal their position in wider networks of exchange. [48][61] The Ephesians' basilicas to St Mary and St John were both equipped with baptisteries with filling and draining pipes: both fonts were flush with the floor and unsuitable for infant baptism. Ce type de bâtiment offrant un vaste espace couvert apparaît dans l'architecture de la Grèce antique avant d'être intégré et de se développer dans l'architecture romaine, devenant un édifice caractéristique des villes romaines. Floor late 4th century; walls 5/6th century. Des boutiques (tabernae) sont parfois associées aux basiliques romaines, qui s'ouvrent sur l'extérieur comme pour la basilique Aemilia (tabernae novae), ou sur l'intérieur comme pour la basilique Julia[4]. On the day of the. [24] This basilica became Rome's cathedral church, known as St John Lateran, and was more richly decorated and larger than any previous Christian structure. La Basilique Saint Pierre de Rome. [38] From the description of Evagrius Scholasticus the church is identifiable as an aisled basilica attached to the martyrium and preceded by an atrium. [16] Similar brick ribs were employed at the Baths of Maxentius on the Palatine Hill, where they supported walls on top of the vault. [54], In eastern Syria, the Church of the East developed at typical pattern of basilica churches. J.-C. s’inspirent du modèle grec tel qu'il a été vu lors des campagnes romaines en Macédoine et en Syrie. [47], In the late 4th century, a large basilica church dedicated to Mary, mother of Jesus was constructed in Ephesus in the former south stoa (a commercial basilica) of the Temple of Hadrian Olympios. [24] Imperial basilicas were first constructed for the Christian Eucharist liturgy in the reign of Constantine. The Latin word basilica derives from Ancient Greek: βασιλική στοά, romanized: basilikè stoá, lit. By extension the name was applied to Christian churches which adopted the same basic plan and is used as an architectural term to describe such buildings. Drawing of the 5th century Church of the Acheiropoietos by Charles Texier, 1864. Leonid basilica Church of the Acheiropoietos, Thessaloniki, 450–60. [43] The basilica, which lay outside the walls of Chalcedon, was destroyed by the Persians in the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628 during one of the Sasanian occupations of the city in 615 and 626. [3] Provinces in the west lacked this tradition, and the basilicas the Romans commissioned there were more typically Italian, with the central nave divided from the side-aisles by an internal colonnade in regular proportions. [...] [18], The basilica at Leptis Magna, built by the Septimius Severus a century later in about 216 is a notable 3rd century AD example of the traditional type, most notable among the works influenced by the Basilica Ulpia. J.-C., donne une liste de onze basiliques pour la ville de Rome[a 3],[9]. [59] The Elpidios Basilica – Basilica B – was of similar age, and the city was home to a large complex of ecclesiastical buildings including Basilica G, with its luxurious mosaic floors and a mid-6th century inscription proclaiming the patronage of the bishop Peter. une basilique de rome dans l'histoire de la ville et de son église (Ve-XIIIe-siècles). It’s easy and only takes a few seconds. Elle est l'église principale du Catholicisme, son centre spirituel et aussi la plus grande.

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